History of Photography


Introduction History of Photography (Encyclopaedia Britannica)

A World History of Photography (by Naomi Rosenblum)

The Story Behind the Pictures 1827-1991 (by Hans-Michael Koetzle)

Photographers' Dictionary
(based on "20th Century Photography - Museum Ludwig Cologne")


 

 



Photographers' Dictionary

(based on "20th Century Photography-Museum Ludwig Cologne")

 
 

 




Nickolas Muray - 1
 


Nickolas Muray

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Nickolas Muray (15 February 1892 - 2 November 1965) was a Hungarian-born American photographer.
Muray attended a graphic arts school in Budapest, where he studied lithography, photoengraving, and photography. After earning an International Engraver's Certificate, Muray took a three-year course in color photoengraving in Berlin, where, among other things, he learned to make color filters. At the end of his course he went to work for the publishing company Ullstein. In 1913, with the threat of war in Europe, Muray sailed to New York City, and was able to find work as a color printer in Brooklyn.
By 1920, Muray had opened a portrait studio at his home in Greenwich Village, while still working at his union job as an engraver. In 1921 he received a commission from Harper's Bazaar to do a portrait of the Broadway actor Florence Reed; soon after he was having photographs published each month in Harper's Bazaar, and was able to give up his engraving job.
Muray quickly became recognized as an important portrait photographer, and his subjects included most of the celebrities of New York City. In 1926, Vanity Fair sent Muray to London, Paris, and Berlin to photograph celebrities, and in 1929 hired him to photograph movie stars in Hollywood. He also did fashion and advertising work. Muray's images were published in many other publications, including Vogue, Ladies' Home Journal, and The New York Times.
Between 1920 and 1940, Nickolas Muray made over 10,000 portraits. His 1938's portrait of Frida Kahlo, made while Kahlo sojourned in New York, attending her exhibit at the Julien Levy Gallery, became the best known and loved portrait made by Muray. Muray and Kahlo were at the height of a ten-year love affair in 1939 when the portrait was made. Their affair had started in 1931, after Muray was divorced from his second wife and shortly after Kahlo's marriage to Mexican muralist painter Diego Rivera. It outlived Muray's third marriage and Kahlo's divorce and remarriage to Rivera by one year, ending in 1941. Muray wanted to marry, but when it became apparent that Kahlo wanted Muray as a lover, not a husband, Muray took his leave for good and married his fourth wife. He and Kahlo remained good friends until her death, in 1954.
After the market crash, Murray turned away from celebrity and theatrical portraiture, and become a pioneering commercial photographer, famous for his creation of many of the conventions of color advertising. He was considered the master or the carbro process. His last important public portraits were of Dwight David Eisenhower in the 1950s.

 


Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks

 


Frida Kahlo, 1939

 


Frida Kahlo in New York, 1946

 


Frida Kahlo on Bench, 1939

 


Frida in Blue Dress, 1939

 


Frida painting "The Two Fridas"
ca. 1939

 


Frida and Diego with Hat
ca. 1939

 


Frida and Diego with Gas Mask
ca. 1939

 


Frida Painting "Me and my Parrots"
ca. 1939

 


Frida Icon, ca. 1939

 


Frida Kahlo

 


Nude, ca. 1920
 

 


Marilyn Monroe

 


Anthony and Cleopatra, Fredric March, Claudette Colbert, Cecil B. De Mille

 


American Cyanamid, Woman & Lamb, Carbro Print 1946

 


McCall's Style & Beauty Cover: Shoes

 


Untitled

 


Babe Ruth, 1927

 

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