History of Photography


Introduction. History of Photography (Encyclopaedia Britannica)

A World History of Photography (by Naomi Rosenblum)

The Story Behind the Pictures 1827-1991 (by Hans-Michael Koetzle)

Photographers' Dictionary.
(based on "20th Century Photography - Museum Ludwig Cologne")


 

 



Photographers' Dictionary

(based on "20th Century Photography-Museum Ludwig Cologne")

 
 

 

 

see also:

Duchenne de Boulogne

Contractions musculaires, 1856


 


Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne

(born September 17, 1806 in Boulogne; died September 15, 1875) was a French neurologist.

Guillaume-Benjamin Duchenne and assistant electrically stimulate the face of a live subject in displaying an expression.Duchenne was educated at Douai and studied medicine in Paris before returning to his hometown to put his profession to practice in 1831. By 1833 he had begun trying electricity as a form of treatment on fishermen, a force that he continued to experiment with throughout the course of his life, in effect making him the father of electro-therapeutics. In 1842 he returned to Paris and there spent the remained of his life working on developing his clinical techniques. Through electricity he also determined that smiles resulting from true happiness not only utilize the muscles of the mouth but also those of the eyes. Such "genuine" smiles are called Duchenne smiles in his honor. He is also credited with the discovery of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
 

 

 


Illustrations for The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals,
by Charles Darwin, 1872. Heliotypes. Photography Collection,
The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations.

 

 

 


Contractions musculaires

Guillaume-Benjamin Duchenne and assistant electrically
stimulate the face of a live subject in displaying an expression.

 





 


Guillaume-Benjamin Duchenne and assistant electrically
stimulate the face of a live subject in displaying an expression.

 

 


Guillaume-Benjamin Duchenne and assistant electrically
stimulate the face of a live subject in displaying an expression.
 

 

 

 


Faradisation of the Frontal Muscle,
from "Album De Photographies Pathologiques"

 



 


Faradisation of the Frontal Muscle,
from "Album De Photographies Pathologiques"

 

 


Physiognomical Examination

 



 


Physiognomical Examination of a Woman with a Cradle
 

 


Physiognomical Studies


Physiognomical Studies

 

 


Physiognomical Studies

 


Physiognomical Studies

 


Physiognomical Studies


Physiognomical Studies

 




 


Portrait of a hunchback boy, 1855-1857

 

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